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多言語学習

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    qwa***** 9月23日 03:36

    この記事は検証可能な参考文献や出典が全く示されていないか、不十分です。

    Pivot language:

    中間言語(英: Pivot language)は、任意の言語を異なる任意の言語へ翻訳する際に利用する中間的な人工言語もしくは自然言語である。

    中間言語を翻訳に用いるデメリットは、中間言語との再翻訳で2度の翻訳誤りと曖昧さを生む可能性があることである。

    言語学習では、中間言語を第二言語(外国語)の学習者が言語を学んでゆく過程で発する、目標言語とは様々な点で違った体系を持つ学習者に特徴的な言語として用いる。すべての言語において、その個別の学習者には中間言語が存在する。この中間言語は当然、学習者の習得レベルや学習内容、母語などに影響を受ける。

    たとえば日本語のみを母語とする者が話す英語は、英語を母語とする人たちのそれとは違っているのが普通である。それは文法や発音が少し違っていたり、特定の表現が多く用いられたり、またその反対にほとんど用いられなかったりと、個人によって異なる。そのようにある一定の規則を持ちながらも、目標言語とは異なっている学習者の言語を中間言語という。

    *例えば、日本語と英語の間に、「英語教師の使う妙な日本語」と評されたもの、あるいは、漢語と古文の間に、「漢文の訓読み」などがある。
    *一般の学習者が最終目標とするのは、中間言語ではなく、あくまで目標とする言語そのものの習得であることに注意しなければならない。
    *リンガ・フランカもその一種と考えられるが、人造言語ではなく、ある地域で母語以外に使用可能な自然言語であると考える。

    ja.wikipedia

    多言語学習 この記事は検証可能な参考文献や出典が全く示されていないか、不十分です。  Pivot languag

  • linguist (n.)

    1580s, "a master of languages;" also "one who uses his tongue freely," a hybrid from Latin lingua "language, tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue") + -ist. Meaning "a student of language" first attested 1640s. Compare French linguiste, Spanish linguista. English in 17c. had an adjective linguacious "talkative" (1650s). Linguister (1640s) was the old name in early colonial New England for an interpreter between Europeans and Indians (Lowell used it in a sense "dabbler in philology, linguist"). Linguistician is attested from 1895.

    *dabbler:
    道楽半分に事をする人 〔at,in〕.ディレッタント
    *philology:言語学 《☆【比較】 現在では philology は通例史的または比較的に研究する言語学をいい,linguistics は共時的に研究する言語学にいう》

    多言語学習 linguist (n.)  1580s, "a master of languages;

  • リングワ・フランカもしくはリンガ・フランカ(伊: Lingua franca)は、「フランク語」、「 フランク王国の言葉」を意味するイタリア語に由来し、それから転じて、共通の母語を持たない集団内において意思疎通に使われている言語のことを指すようになった。現在では、「共通語」や「通商語」の意味で使われることが多い。 (一言語の標準語ではない)

    lingua franca (n.)

    1620s, from Italian, literally "Frankish tongue." A stripped-down Italian peppered with Spanish, French, Greek, Arabic, and Turkish words, it began as a form of communication in the Levant. The name probably is from the Arabic custom, dating back to the Crusades, of calling all Europeans Franks (see Frank). Sometimes in 17c. English sources also known as Bastard Spanish.

    *lingua francaは、母語の異なる者同士が、意思疎通の必要にせまられて話された共通語と解釈した。

    多言語学習 リングワ・フランカもしくはリンガ・フランカ(伊: Lingua franca)は、「フランク語」、「

  • A pluricentric language has multiple interacting standard varieties. Examples include English, French, Portuguese, German, Korean, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish, Armenian and Chinese. Monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have only one standardized version.

    *複数中心地言語(ふくすうちゅうしんちげんご、ドイツ語: plurizentrische Sprache, polyzentrische Sprache、英語: pluricentric language, polycentric language)または多極的言語(たきょくてきげんご)は、複数の規範(標準語またはそれに類するもの)を持つ言語である。

  • Standard language:
    A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization. Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects spoken in the centers of commerce and government, where a need arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs. Standardization typically involves a fixed orthography, codification in authoritative grammars and dictionaries and public acceptance of these standards. A standard written language is sometimes termed by the German word Schriftsprache.

    *[a variety of…または varieties of…で] (同種の中の)種類; a variety of cat 猫の一種.
    *正書法(せいしょほう、英: orthography)は、言語を文字で正しく記述する際のルールの集合のことである。
    *codification:
    1 体系化,集大成.
    2 〔法律〕
    (1)法典化,成文化:従来,判例法や慣習法によっていた法的分野を1つの体系に従った制定法にすること.
    (2)(不文である慣習法・判例法などの)成文化,法典化.

    多言語学習 Standard language: A standard language or standard

  • Dialect(方言): The Oxford Concise Dictionary defines dialect as, “a form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group." Dialects are noted by variations in phonology, phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary. Linguists Odell, Vacca, and Hobbs (2007, p. 939) make a vital point:

    "Everyone uses a dialect, and no dialect is better or worse than another."
    //vocablog-plc.blogspot.com/2011/03/dialect-slang-jargon-register.html

    What is the difference between slang, dialect and accent?
    //www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-slang-dialect-and-accent

    non-standard speech

    //www.thefreedictionary.com/non-standard+speech

    多言語学習 Dialect(方言):  The Oxford Concise Dictionary define

  • SLANG An everchanging set of COLLOQUIAL words and phrases generally considered distinct from and socially lower than the standard language. Slang is used to establish or reinforce social identity and cohesiveness, especially within a group or with a trend or fashion in society at large. It occurs in all languages, and the existence of a short-lived vocabulary of this sort within a language is probably as old as language itself. In its earliest occurrences in the 18c, the word slang referred to the specialized vocabulary of underworld groups and was used fairly interchangeably with CANT, flash, ARGOT.

    //www.encyclopedia.com/literature-and-arts/language-linguistics-and-literary-terms/language-and-linguistics/slang

  • Slang(俗語)、dialect(方言)、lingo((《複数形》 lingoes) 1 外国語. 2 術語,専門語.
    jargon:
    1 (普通の人にはわからない)専門語,職業語,通語,隠語; 専門語だらけの話[言葉].
    critics' jargon 批評家用語.
    2 
    a わけのわからない言葉,ちんぷんかんぷん; たわごと.
    b ひどい方言; (未開人などの)野蛮な言葉.

    key words:dialect, slang, lingo

    Slang:Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both. (俗語?)
    *register:不可算名詞 [具体的には 可算名詞] 【言語学】 言語使用域

    en.wikipedia

    多言語学習 Slang(俗語)、dialect(方言)、lingo((《複数形》 lingoes) 1 外国語.

  • 「ASAP」は結構上から目線で偉そうに聞こえます。感覚的ですが、略語なのでなんだか軍隊みたいな感じがします。2つ目の注意点は、「ASAP」は期限が不明確です。
    //eigobu.jp/magazine/asap

    The term initialism uses a similar method, but the word is pronounced letter by letter. Example: BBC British Broadcasting Corporation or USA United States of America.
    And last but not least, there are symbols and/or units of reference, like min for minute or kg for kilogram.

    頭文字語は似たような方法によるが、語は一文字づつ発音される。
    例:BBC(British Broadcasting Corporation);USA(United States of America)
    最期ではあるが見落としてはならないのは、min(minute)、kg(kilogram)などの照合のシンボルや単位がある。

  • abbreviationsとacronymの使い分けは、必ずしも明確ではないが、、、

    Abbreviations アブリーヴィエイションズ 省略形、略語

    An abbreviation (from Latin brevi³re → brevis meaning “short”) is a shortened form of a word or phrase used mainly in writing to represent the complete form. It usually has a full-stop at the end.
    Examples: Lib. For Library / abbr. for abbreviation / approx. for approximate

    アブリーヴィエイションは、ラテン語で「短い」を意味し、語句の短縮された形であり、主に文章に使われて完全な形を表象する。通常、最期をピリオドで括る。
    例:Lib.(library);abbr.(abbreviation);approx.(approximate)

    Acronyms アクロニムズ 頭文字

    An acronym (from Latin acro- meaning “beginning” + -onym meaning “word, name”) is a pronounceable word formed mostly (but not always) from the initial letters of a descriptive name or title.
    Examples: radar = radio detecting and ranging / ASAP = as soon as possible

    アクロニムは、ラテン語acro-(開始)と-onym(語、名)から成り、ほとんどの場合記述される名前や肩書の頭文字から成る発音可能な語である。
    例:radar(レイダア)=radio detecting and ranging(電波域内探知機);ASAP(エイサップ)=as soon as possible
    (エイ・エス・エイ・ピィ)と読むならアブリヴィエイションとも言えるだろう。

  • brace:

    He braced every nerve for a supreme effort. 彼はひと奮発しようとぐっと全神経を引き締めた.

    Western Japan braces for strongest typhoon of year.

    THE ASAHI SHIMBUN

  • *kwo-
    also *kwi-, Proto-Indo-European root, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.

    It forms all or part of: cheese (n.2) "a big thing;" cue (n.1) "stage direction;" either; hidalgo; how; kickshaw; neither; neuter; qua; quality; quandary; quantity; quasar; quasi; quasi-; query; quib; quibble; quiddity; quidnunc; quip; quodlibet; quondam; quorum; quote; quotidian; quotient; ubi; ubiquity; what; when;

    whence; where; whether; which; whither; who; whoever; whom; whose; why.

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kah "who, which;" Avestan ko, Hittite kuish "who;" Latin quis/quid "in what respect, to what extent; how, why," qua "where, which way," qui/quae/quod "who, which;" Lithuanian kas "who;" Old Church Slavonic kuto, Russian kto "who;" Old Irish ce, Welsh pwy "who;" Old English hwa, hwæt, hwær, etc.

  • emitter:

    something that emits (= sends out) light, a noise, or a substance, especially the gas carbon dioxide:

    SUVs remain, on average, higher emitters than passenger cars.

    about transistor:

    Collector current is approximately (common-emitter current gain) times the base current.

    From Wikipedia

    Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

    emitter follower circuit:

    多言語学習 emitter:  something that emits (= sends out) light

  • emit (v.) 放射する

    1620s, from Latin emittere "send forth," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + mittere "to send" (see mission). Related: Emitted; emitting.

    emission (n.)

    early 15c., "something sent forth," from Middle French émission (14c.) and directly from Latin emissionem (nominative emissio) "a sending out, a projecting, hurling, letting go, releasing," noun of action from past participle stem of emittere "send out" (see emit). Meaning "a giving off or emitting" is from 1610s.

    多言語学習 emit (v.) 放射する  1620s, from Latin emittere "s

  • admission (n.)

    early 15c., "acceptance, reception, approval," from Latin admissionem (nominative admissio) "a letting in," noun of action from past-participle stem of admittere "admit, give entrance; grant an audience," of acts, "let be done, allow, permit," from ad "to" (see ad-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Meaning "an acknowledging" is from 1530s. Literal sense of "act of allowing to enter, admittance," is from 1620s. As short for admission price, by 1792.

    admit (v.)

    late 14c., "let in," from Latin admittere "admit, give entrance, allow to enter; grant an audience," of acts, "let be done, allow, permit," from ad "to" (see ad-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Sense of "to concede in argument as valid or true" is first recorded early 15c. In Middle English sometimes also amit, after Old French amettre, which was refashioned 15c. Related: Admitted; Admitting.

    多言語学習 admission (n.)  early 15c., "acceptance, rece

  • omission (n.)

    late 14c., from Latin omissionem (nominative omissio) "an omitting," noun of action from past participle stem of omittere (see omit). Related: Omissible.

    omit (v.)

    early 15c., from Latin omittere "let go, let fall," figuratively "lay aside, disregard," from assimilated form of ob (here perhaps intensive) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Related: Omitted; omitting.

    多言語学習 omission (n.)  late 14c., from Latin omissionem (n

  • commission (n.)

    mid-14c., "authority entrusted to someone, delegated authority or power," from Old French commission and directly from Latin commissionem (nominative commissio) "act of committing," in Medieval Latin "delegation of business," noun of action from past participle stem of committere "to unite, connect, combine; to bring together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + mittere "to release, let go; send, throw" (see mission).

    commit (v.)

    late 14c., "to give in charge, entrust," from Latin committere "to unite, connect, combine; to bring together," from com "with, together" (see com-) + mittere "to release, let go; send, throw" (see mission).

    多言語学習 commission (n.)  mid-14c., "authority entrust

  • transmission (n.)

    1610s, "conveyance from one place to another," from Latin transmissionem (nominative transmissio) "a sending over or across, passage," noun of action from past participle stem of transmittere "send over or across" (see transmit). Meaning "part of a motor vehicle that regulates power from the engine to the axle" is first recorded 1894.

    transmit (v.)

    c. 1400, from Latin transmittere "send across, cause to go across, transfer, pass on," from trans "across, beyond" (see trans-) + mittere "to release, let go; send, throw" (see mission). Related: Transmitted; transmitting.

    多言語学習 transmission (n.)  1610s, "conveyance from on

  • mission (n.)

    1590s, "a sending abroad," originally of Jesuits, from Latin missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending, a dispatching; a release, a setting at liberty; discharge from service, dismissal," noun of action from past participle stem of mittere "to release, let go; send, throw," which de Vaan traces to a PIE *m(e)ith- "to exchange, remove," also source of Sanskrit methete, mimetha "to become hostile, quarrel," Gothic in-maidjan "to change;" he writes, "From original 'exchange', the meaning developed to 'give, bestow' ... and 'let go, send'."

    多言語学習 mission (n.)  1590s, "a sending abroad,"

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