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  • clit·ic
    An unstressed word, typically a function word, that is incapable of standing on its own and attaches in pronunciation to a stressed word, with which it forms a single accentual unit. Examples of clitics are the pronoun 'em in I see 'em and the definite article in French l'arme, "the arm."

    *accentual:形容詞 1.アクセントの(ある) 2.【韻律】〈詩脚が〉音節のアクセントによる

    Of or relating to a clitic or clisis.



    From meso- +‎ clitic; compare proclitic, enclitic.

    3.(chemistry) Designating an achiral member of a group of diastereoisomers that has at least one chiral member
    meso-tartaric acid

    diastereoisomer (plural diastereoisomers)
    1.(chemistry) A stereoisomer having multiple chiral centres; a diastereoisomer cannot normally be superimposed on the mirror image of another.


    Typological Classifications of Language


    Classification of World Languages


    形態的類型論 出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

    膠着語と屈折語は、孤立語とは異なりいずれも語形変化(屈折)をする。その一方だけを屈折語と呼ぶのは誤解を招きかねないため、屈折語は融合語(ゆうごうご、fusional language)と呼ばれることもある。

    多言語学習 LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATIONS  Typological Classificati

  • -ty (2)

    suffix used in forming abstract nouns from adjectives (such as safety, surety), Middle English -tie, -te, from Old French -te (Modern French -té), from Latin -tatem (nominative -tas, genitive -tatis), cognate with Greek -tes, Sanskrit -tati-. Also see -ity.

    形容詞から抽象名詞を作る際に用いられる接尾辞(例えば、safety, surety)、中英語-tie, -te、古フランス語-te(現代フランス語-té)、ラテン語-tatem(主格-tas, 属格-tatis)、ギリシャ語-tes、サンスクリット-tatiと同じ語源。参照 -ity。

  • -ity

    word-forming element making abstract nouns from adjectives and meaning "condition or quality of being ______," from Middle English -ite, from Old French -ete (Modern French -ité) and directly from Latin -itatem (nominative -itas), suffix denoting state or condition, composed of -i- (from the stem or else a connective) + the common abstract suffix -tas (see -ty (2)).

    形容詞から抽象名詞を作り、形容詞で表されることの状態と質を意味する。中英語-ite、古フランス語-ete(現代フランス語-ité) 、ラテン語-itatem(主格-itas)から直接、状態を示す接尾辞、-i-(語幹あるいは連結詞から)と-tas(参照 -ty(2))。

    Roughly, the word in -ity usually means the quality of being what the adjective describes, or concretely an instance of the quality, or collectively all the instances; & the word in -ism means the disposition, or collectively all those who feel it. [Fowler]


  • -ism 語源

    動作、様子、状態、理論を抽象名詞化するギリシア語の接尾辞 -ισμός (-ismos) より。その由来は ギリシア語の -ισμα (-isma) で、その更に由来は、幹動詞の -ιζειν (-izein)。


    ism (複数 isms) 接尾語-ismから名詞化 (口語)主義、思想、理論、様式。

    See at ://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/-ism

  • -ism

    word-forming element making nouns implying a practice, system, doctrine, etc., from French -isme or directly from Latin -isma, -ismus (source also of Italian, Spanish -ismo, Dutch, German -ismus), from Greek -ismos, noun ending signifying the practice or teaching of a thing, from the stem of verbs in -izein, a verb-forming element denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is attached. For distinction of use, see -ity. The related Greek suffix -isma(t)- affects some forms.

    *practice:【不可算名詞】a(理論・思想に対して)実行,実践; 実地,実際 (⇔theory). 用例 theory and practice 理論と実際.

    *system: 相互に影響を及ぼしあう要素から構成される、まとまりや仕組みの全体。一般性の高い概念であるため、文脈に応じて系、体系、制度、方式、機構、 組織といった多種の言葉に該当する。


    1 不可算名詞 [具体的には 可算名詞] 教義,教理.

    2 不可算名詞 [具体的には 可算名詞] (宗教・政治・学問上の)主義,方針; 学説,理論.

    3 可算名詞 《主に米国で用いられる》 (国家の政策上の)公式宣言,主義. ⇒Monroe Doctrine.

  • Many verbs that end in -ize can also end in -ise in British English. For example, in British English, all of the following spellings are acceptable: finalize/finalise; organize/organise; realize/realise. In American English, the only correct spellings are finalize, organize, and realize.

    In both American and British English, there is a small set of verbs that must always be spelled with -ise at the end. The main reason for this is that, in these words, -ise is part of a longer word element rather than being a separate ending in its own right. For example: -cise (meaning 'cutting) in the word excise; -prise (meaning 'taking') as in surprise; or -mise (meaning 'sending') in promise.


  • word-forming element used to make verbs, Middle English -isen, from Old French -iser, from Late Latin -izare, from Greek -izein, a verb-forming element denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is attached.

    English picked up the French form, but partially reverted to the correct Greek -z- spelling from late 16c. In Britain, despite the opposition to it (at least formerly) of OED, Encyclopaedia Britannica, the "Times of London," and Fowler, -ise remains dominant. Fowler thinks this is to avoid the difficulty of remembering the short list of common words not from Greek which must be spelled with an -s- (such as advertise, devise, surprise).

    Late Latin:【名詞】13世紀から8世紀までのラテン語の書き言葉
    revert:【動詞】 【自動詞】1a〔もとの習慣・状態などに〕帰る,逆戻りする
    dominant:[形] (…に対して)支配的な;最有力な,優勢な
    remain:【動詞】 【自動詞】残る,残存する,存続する,生き残る
    short list: 短いリスト[一覧表]

    *The Times, the newspaper, is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution.

    多言語学習 word-forming element used to make verbs, Middle En

  • In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixation is the linguistic process that speakers use to form different words by adding morphemes at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words.



    affix:【文法】 接辞 《接頭辞・接尾辞》.

    preffix:【文法】 接頭辞《un-, pre-, dis-, re-, etc.》

    suffix:【文法】 接尾辞 《‐er,‐less,‐able, etc. 》

  • derivation:【言語学】a 不可算名詞 (語の)派生,語源. b 可算名詞 派生語.
    inflection:【文法】a 不可算名詞 屈折,活用,語形変化 《declension,conjugation を含む》. b 可算名詞 変化[屈折]形,語形変化に用いる語尾.

    Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as -ness or un-. For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

    It is differentiated from inflection, which is the modification of a word to form different grammatical categories without changing its core meaning: determines, determining, and determined are from the root determine.

    語形変化または屈折とは、一つの語が文法的な意味機能に応じて異なる複数の形を持つことである。名詞とそれに準じる品詞の語形変化を曲用、動詞とそれに準じる品詞の語形変化を活用という。ただし、語形変化の総称として広義に活用の語を用いる場合もある。 Wikipedia



  • 形態論

    形態論(けいたいろん、英: morphology)とは、ヒトの言語の、語(単語)を構成する仕組みのこと。また、それを研究する言語学の一分野。


    Morphology (linguistics)


    Morpheme:【言語学】 形態素 《意味をになう最小の言語単位》

    A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding. The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural). Every word comprises one or more morphemes.


    多言語学習 形態論  形態論(けいたいろん、英: morphology)とは、ヒトの言語の、語(単語)を構成する

  • 語幹と語基の違いが解りません。できるだけ簡単な言葉で回答をお願いいたします。



    from chiebukuro

  • cognate:同根語


    語根 vs. 語幹




    派生語:接辞を添加することによって形成された語。接辞が添加される要素(語基)には2種類あり、(1)それ自体が独立して用いられるもの(非生産的、子供たち)、(2)それ自体が独立して用いられることのないもの(おとうさん、八百屋)がある。英語にも同様の区別があり、(1)enlarge, active、(2)conceive, deceiveのような例がある。(1)を二次派生語、(2)を一次派生語とよび、狭義の派生語は(1)のみをさす。---日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)

  • What are some languages that are spoken exactly as they're written?

    All languages are spoken exactly as they are written. The purpose of a writing system is to map directly from written words to spoken words inside the reader’s head, so any language is spoken as written, provided you know the pronunciation rules of that language.



  • この記事は検証可能な参考文献や出典が全く示されていないか、不十分です。

    Pivot language:

    中間言語(英: Pivot language)は、任意の言語を異なる任意の言語へ翻訳する際に利用する中間的な人工言語もしくは自然言語である。






    多言語学習 この記事は検証可能な参考文献や出典が全く示されていないか、不十分です。  Pivot languag

  • linguist (n.)

    1580s, "a master of languages;" also "one who uses his tongue freely," a hybrid from Latin lingua "language, tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue") + -ist. Meaning "a student of language" first attested 1640s. Compare French linguiste, Spanish linguista. English in 17c. had an adjective linguacious "talkative" (1650s). Linguister (1640s) was the old name in early colonial New England for an interpreter between Europeans and Indians (Lowell used it in a sense "dabbler in philology, linguist"). Linguistician is attested from 1895.

    道楽半分に事をする人 〔at,in〕.ディレッタント
    *philology:言語学 《☆【比較】 現在では philology は通例史的または比較的に研究する言語学をいい,linguistics は共時的に研究する言語学にいう》

    多言語学習 linguist (n.)  1580s, "a master of languages;

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